Ide mendirikan TOAI KOBA (Tim Olimpiade Astronomi Indonesia Kota Banjar) untuk mengikuti turnamen yang paling berbobot dalam bidang sains ini berasal dari kelompok mahasiswa-mahasiswa alumni sekolah menengah atas Kota Banjar yang sedang melajutkan studinya di berbagai bidang disiplin ilmu.
Kami merasakan bahwa sesungguhnya impian, harapan, motivasi dan rasa antusiasme yang tinggi terhadap cita-cita menjadi modal utama untuk maju.
Semoga web-blog ini dapat bermanfaat bagi kita semua.
Mengantarkan Pelajar Kota Banjar Menjuarai Kompetisi Ilmiah Astronomi
Mentafakuri Kekuasaan Maha Pencipta
1. Pembangunan Pusat Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Astro Fisika d
a. Pengembangan Kurikulum Astrofisika
b. Pengembangan Sylabus Pendidikan Astrofisika
c. Riset, analisa dan pengembangan soal-soal Kompetisi Astrofisika
2. Kerjasama dengan Organisasi Keantariksaan Local, Nasional dan International
(Departemen Pendidikan Fisika UPI, Cakrawala UPI, Departemen Astronomi ITB, Jogja Astro Club, Lapan, MIT Open Course Ware dan Forum NASA bagi Para Guru)
3. Melakukan pengamatan (Observasi) terhadap gejala-gejala Astrofisika dalam
Observatorium Bosscha merupakan salah satu tempat peneropongan bintang tertua di Indonesia. Observatorium Bosscha berlokasi di Lembang, Jawa Barat, sekitar 15 km di bagian utara Kota Bandung dengan koordinat geografis 107° 36' Bujur Timur dan 6° 49' Lintang Selatan. Tempat ini berdiri di atas tanah seluas 6 hektar, dan berada pada ketinggian 1310 meter di atas permukaan laut atau pada ketinggian 630 m dari plato Bandung. Kode observatorium Persatuan Astronomi Internasional untuk observatorium Bosscha adalah 299.
Theoretical astronomers use a wide variety of tools which include analytical models(for example, polytropesto approximate the behaviors of a star) and computationalnumerical simulations. Each has some advantages. Analytical models of a process are generally better for giving insight into the heart of what is going on. Numerical models can reveal the existence of phenomena and effects that would otherwise not be seen.Theorists in astronomy endeavor to create theoretical models and figure out the observational consequences of those models. This helps observers look for data that can refute a model or help in choosing between several alternate or conflicting models. Theorists also try to generate or modify models to take into account new data. In the case of an inconsistency, the general tendency is to try to make minimal modifications to the model to fit the data. In some cases, a large amount of inconsistent data over time may lead to total abandonment of a model. Topics studied by theoretical astronomers include: stellar dynamicsand evolution; galaxy formation; large-scale structureof matterin the Universe; origin of cosmic rays; general relativityand physical cosmology, including stringcosmology and astroparticle physics. Astrophysical relativity serves as a tool to gauge the properties of large scale structures for which gravitation plays a significant role in physical phenomena investigated and as the basis for black hole(astro)physicsand the study of gravitational waves. Some widely accepted and studied theories and models in astronomy, now included in the Lambda-CDM modelare the Big Bang, Cosmic inflation, dark matter, and fundamental theories of physics. A few examples of this process:
|Physical process||Experimental tool||Theoretical model||Explains/predicts|
|Gravitation||Radio telescopes||Self-gravitating system||Emergence of a star system|
|Nuclear fusion||Spectroscopy||Stellar evolution||How the stars shine and how metals formed|
|The Big Bang||Hubble Space Telescope, COBE||Expanding universe||Age of the Universe|
|Quantum fluctuations||Cosmic inflation||Flatness problem|
|Gravitational collapse||X-ray astronomy||General relativity||Black holes at the center of Andromeda galaxy|
|CNO cycle in stars|
- PakAR from CASA
- Agus Triawan
- Ech Novi Irawan
- Ferry M Simatupang
- Graifhan Ramadhani
- Info Astronomy
- Hazarry bin Haji Ali Ahmad
- HM Muchlas AR
- Jay Yulian Firdaus
- T. Djamaluddin
- Jefferson Teng
- Anton William
- Hanief Tri H
The typical amateur astronomer is one who does not depend on the field of astronomy as a primary source of income or support, and does not have a professional degree or advanced academic training. Many amateurs are beginners, while others have a high degree of experience in astronomy and often assist and work alongside professional astronomers.
Amateur astronomy is usually associated with viewing the night sky when most celestial objects and events are visible, but sometimes amateur astronomers also operate during the day for events such as sunspots and solar eclipses. Amateur astronomers often look at the sky using nothing more than their eyes, but common tools for amateur astronomy include portable telescopes and binoculars.
People have studied the sky throughout history in an amateur framework, without any formal method of funding. It is only within about the past century, however, that amateur astronomy has become an activity clearly distinguished from professional astronomy, and other related activities.
Amateur astronomy objectives
Collectively, amateur astronomers observe a variety of celestial objects and phenomena. Common targets of amateur astronomers include the Moon, planets, stars, comets, meteor showers, and a variety of deep sky objects such as star clusters, galaxies, and nebulae. Many amateurs like to specialise in observing particular objects, types of objects, or types of events which interest them. One branch of amateur astronomy, amateur astrophotography, involves the taking of photos of the night sky. Astrophotography has become more popular for amateurs in recent times, as relatively sophisticated equipment, such as high quality CCD cameras, has become more affordable.
Most amateurs work at visible wavelengths, but a small minority experiment with wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. The pioneer of amateur radio astronomy was Karl Jansky who started observing the sky at radio wavelengths in the 1930s, and interest has increased over time. Non-visual amateur astronomy includes the use of infrared filters on conventional telescopes, and also the use of radio telescopes. Some amateur astronomers use home-made radio telescopes, while others use radio telescopes that were originally built for astronomy research but have since been made available for use by amateurs. The One-Mile Telescope is one such example.
Amateur astronomers use a range of instruments to study the sky, depending on a combination of their interests and resources. Methods include simply looking at the night sky with the naked eye, using binoculars, and using a variety of optical telescopes of varying power and quality, as well as additional sophisticated equipment, such as cameras, to study light from the sky in both the visual and non-visual parts of the spectrum. Commercial telescopes are available and used, but in some places it is also common for amateur astronomers to build (or commission the building of) their own custom telescope. Some people even focus on amateur telescope making as their primary interest within the hobby of amateur astronomy.
Although specialised and experienced amateur astronomers tend to acquire more specialised and more powerful equipment over time, relatively simple equipment is often preferred for certain tasks. Binoculars, for instance, although generally of lower power than the majority of telescopes, also tend to provide a wider field of view, which is preferable for looking at some objects in the night sky.
Amateur astronomers also use star charts that, depending on experience and intentions, may range from simple planispheres through to detailed charts of very specific areas of the night sky. A range of astronomy software is available and used by amateur astronomers, including software that generates maps of the sky, software to assist with astrophotography, observation scheduling software, and software to perform various calculations pertaining to astronomical phenomena.
Amateur astronomers often like to keep records of their observations, which usually takes the form of an observing log. Observing logs typically record details about which objects were observed and when, as well as describing the details that were seen. Sketching is sometimes used within logs, and photographic records of observations have also been used in recent times.
The Internet is an essential tool of amateur astronomers. Almost all astronomy clubs, even those with very few members, have a web site. The popularity of CCD imaging among amateurs has lead to large numbers of web sites being written by individuals about their images and equipment. Much of the social interaction of amateur astronomy occurs on mailing lists or discussion groups. Discussion group servers host numerous astronomy lists. A great deal of the commerce of amateur astronomy, the buying and selling of equipment, occurs online. Many amateurs use online tools to plan their nightly observing sessions using tools such as the Clear Sky Chart.
While a number of interesting celestial objects are readily identified by the naked eye, sometimes with the aid of a star chart, many others are so faint or inconspicuous that technical means are necessary to locate them. Many methods are used in amateur astronomy, but most are variations of a few specific techniques.
Star hopping is a method often used by amateur astronomers with low-tech equipment such as binoculars or a manually driven telescope. It involves the use of maps (or memory) to locate known landmark stars, and "hopping" between them, often with the aid of a finderscope. Because of its simplicity, star hopping is a very common method for finding objects that are close to naked-eye stars.
More advanced methods of locating objects in the sky include telescope mounts with setting circles, which assist with pointing telescopes to positions in the sky that are known to contain objects of interest, and GOTO telescopes, which are fully automated telescopes that are capable of locating objects on demand (having first been calibrated).
Setting circles are angular measurement scales that can be placed on the two main rotation axes of some telescopes. Since the widespread adoption of digital setting circles, any classical engraved setting circle is now specifically identified as an "analog setting circle" (ASC). By knowing the coordinates of an object (usually given in equatorial coordinates), the telescope user can use the setting circle to align the telescope in the appropriate direction before looking through its eyepiece. A computerized setting circle is called a "digital setting circle" (DSC). Although digital setting circles can be used to display a telescope's RA and Dec coordinates, they are not simply a digital read-out of what can be seen on the telescope's analog setting circles. As with go-to telescopes, digital setting circle computers (commercial names include Argo Navis, Sky Commander, and NGC Max) contain databases of tens of thousands of celestial objects and projections of planet positions.
To find an object, such as globular cluster NGC 6712, one does not need to look up the RA and Dec coordinates in a book, and then move the telescope to those numerical readings. Rather, the object is chosen from the database and arrow markers appear in the display which indicate the direction to move the telescope. The telescope is moved until the distance value reaches zero. When both the RA and Dec axes are thus "zeroed out", the object should be in the eyepiece. The user therefore does not have to go back and forth from some other database (such as a book or laptop) to match the desired object's listed coordinates to the coordinates on the telescope. However, many DSCs, and also go-to systems, can work in conjunction with laptop sky programs.
Computerized systems provide the further advantage of computing coordinate precession. Traditional printed sources are subtitled by the epoch year, which refers to the positions of celestial objects at a given time to the nearest year (e.g., J2005, J2007). Most such printed sources have been updated for intervals of only about every fifty years (e.g., J1900, J1950, J2000). Computerized sources, on the other hand, are able to calculate the right ascension and declination of the "epoch of date" to the exact instant of observation.
GOTO telescopes have become more popular in recent times. as technology has improved and prices have been reduced. With these computer-driven telescopes, the user typically enters the name of the item of interest and the mechanics of the telescope point the telescope towards that item automatically. They have several notable advantages for amateur astronomers intent on research. For example, GOTO telescopes tend to be faster for locating items of interest than star hopping, allowing more time for studying of the object. GOTO also allows manufacturers to add equatorial tracking to mechanically simpler alt-azmuth telescope mounts, allowing them to produce an over all less expensive product.
Because GOTO telescopes have become increasingly affordable, a new type of beginning amateur astronomer has emerged, in that GOTO telescopes offer a form of instant gratification, sometimes allowing difficult objects to be found quickly without requiring the experience of learning to find them.
Amateur astronomers engage in many imaging techniques including film and CCD astrophotography. Because CCD imagers are linear, image processing may be used to subtract away the effects of light pollution, which has increased the popularity of astrophotography in urban areas.
Scientific research is most often not the main goal for many amateur astronomers, unlike professional astronomy. Work of scientific merit is possible, however, and many amateurs successfully contribute to the knowledge base of professional astronomers. Astronomy is sometimes promoted as one of the few remaining sciences for which amateurs can still contribute useful data. To recognise this, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific annually gives Amateur Achievement Awards for significant contributions to astronomy by amateurs.
The majority of scientific contributions by amateur astronomers are in the area of data collection. In particular, this applies where large numbers of amateur astronomers with small telescopes are more effective than the relatively small number of large telescopes that are available to professional astronomers. Several organisations, such as the Center for Backyard Astrophysics, exist to help coordinate these contributions.
Amateur astronomers often contribute toward activities such as monitoring the changes in brightness of variable stars, helping to track asteroids, and observing occultations to determine both the shape of asteroids and the shape of the terrain on the apparent edge of the Moon as seen from Earth. With more advanced equipment, but still cheap in comparison to professional setups, amateur astronomers can measure the light spectrum emitted from astronomical objects, which can yield high-quality scientific data if the measurements are performed with due care. A relatively recent role for amateur astronomers is searching for overlooked phenomena (e.g., Kreutz Sungrazers) in the vast libraries of digital images and other data captured by Earth and space based observatories, much of which is available over the Internet.
In the past and present, amateur astronomers have played a major role in discovering new comets. Recently however, funding of projects such as the Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research and Near Earth Asteroid Tracking projects has meant that most comets are now discovered by automated systems, long before it is possible for amateurs to see them.
There is a large number of amateur astronomical societies around the world that serve as a meeting point for those interested in amateur astronomy, whether they be people who are actively interested in observing or "armchair astronomers" who may be simply interested in the topic. Societies range widely in their goals, depending on a variety of factors such as geographic spread, local circumstances, size, and membership. For instance, a local society in the middle of a large city may have regular meetings with speakers, focusing less on observing the night sky if the membership is less able to observe due to factors such as light pollution.
It is common for local societies to hold regular meetings, which may include activities such as star parties or presentations. Societies are also a meeting point for people with particular interests, such as amateur telescope making.